These papers are case studies prepared for the Center for Policy and Human Development/UNDP as background documents for the 2011 Afghan National Human Development Report (The Forgotten Front: Water Security and the Crisis in Sanitation). The case studies provide important insight into the role, importance and various consequences of the water situation faced by different people around the country. The case studies have been implemented in Faryab, Wardak, Kunduz and Kabul. They are focused around water and local conflict, water use in informal settlements, long-term and short-term effects of drought and the Karez system.
In recent Afghan history, relations between the government, elected officials and civil society actors have been complex and plagued by misunderstanding. This study was designed to better understand the ways in which elected officials, government, and civil society actors are currently working together to help shape law and policies in Afghanistan, as well as to identify ways to improve their engagement. Two laws – The Media Law and The Election Law – and two policies – the Afghan National Development Strategy and the Basic Pack on Health Services – form the centre of this study. Interviews and focus group discussions were held with elected officials, government, and representatives of civil society (largely CSO’s) at the national, provincial and district levels to better understand the ways in which they have been engaged in the formulation of these laws and policies.
The Human Security Indicators Project was implemented by Cooperation for Peace and Unity (CPAU) in 2010. Data collection was carried out in 9 districts in the 3 provinces of Kabul, Kunduz and Helmand, between January and March 2010. Data collection continued in these sites and later expanded to 6 other districts in Kandahar and Nangarhar Province. The reports detail human security issues including personal security, freedom of movement, household security, economic and trade security and judicial and political security. The reports develop understanding of human security variables, including perceptions and sources of threats, attitudes towards police, and the economic and agricultural variables that affect people’s livelihood and sense of security.
This study details how residents of Helmand access justice, focusing particularly on how they resolve disputes. By focusing on the experience and perspectives of residents of villages in Helmand, the report provides a bottom up view of what change is needed if ordinary people are to access justice mechanisms, and view them as fair. The study focuses on the informal systems of dispute resolution, involving Elders and Mullahs, and how they link with formal statutory processes and persons, including prosecutors, defence lawyers, judges and courts, for both civil and criminal litigation. The mapping study, together with findings from other data sources, enables an assessment of current government and international efforts to strengthen and link community-based and statutory justice mechanisms.
Understanding Conflict between Nomadic and Settled Communities in Wardak’s Pastureland This reports examines the conflict between the nomadic Kuchi and settled Hazara communities in Wardak. The report explores tangible factors such as socioeconomic deprivation and intangible factors such as social fragmentation to understand the nature of the conflict between these communities and their vulnerability to conflict.
These conflict analysis papers are the culmination of 5 provincial studies focusing on Badakhshan, Kunduz, Kabul, Wardak and Ghazni conducted by CPAU with the financial support of Trocaire. These conflict analysis reports examine the broad range of issues involved in endemic local conflict in Afghanistan, and using monitoring data and conflict mapping, they build a picture of why conflicts occur in both rural and urban environments, and points towards solutions as to how conflict can be addressed constructively.
Throughout Afghanistan, there are silent but chilling reminders of the constant loss of innocent lives in a conflict which has spanned three decades, and one that continues to claim innocent lives today. The identities of the killers and the victims may change but the result for the majority Afghans remains the same – a lack of security against a stark backdrop of continuing poverty and underdevelopment.As Afghanistan rebuilds, the three D’s of development, defence and diplomacy exist in an uneasy marriage, and the reconciliation of civil and military goals remains fraught with conflicts of interest. This research has primarily addressed Afghanconcerns, and unpacks some of the commonly heldassumptions about Afghan engagement with andwithin the main areas of the civilian-military debate. The report concludes that CIVMIL relations, institutions and decision-making inAfghanistan need to be more inclusive and informedby Afghan perspectives. This responsibility falls toall actors, the GoA, the military, NGOs, Afghan civilsociety groups, and the media.
The object of this research was to explain the context and function of religious civil actors in Afghan society. The study is rooted in the conviction that religion constitutes a major force in Afghan society, and that religious leaders hold considerable influence, with a potential to affect the peace process both negatively and positively.
Three decades of conflict has left Afghanistan with a profound need for extensive intervention to address reconstruction and development requirements, particularly in rural areas, many of which were never reached by consecutive governmental developmental plans. In 2002, the transitional administration of the country began to implement the National Solidarity Program, which aimed to target the needs of rural communities by employing community-driven development, delivered through a collaborative partnership, encompassing central government, local and international non-governmental organizations(NGOs), and local communities – represented by specially devised Community Development Councils. This report evaluates the successes and limitations of the project.